Surfaces of airless bodies exposed to interplanetary space gradually have their structures, optical properties, chemical compositions, and mineralogy changed by solar wind implantation and sputtering, irradiation by galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite bombardment. These alteration processes and the resultant optical changes are known as space weathering [1, 2, 3]. Our knowledge of space weathering has depended almost entirely on studies of the surface materials returned from the Moon and regolith breccia meteorites [1, 4, 5, 6] until the surface material of the asteroid Itokawa was returned to the Earth by the Hayabusa spacecraft . Lunar soil studies show that space weathering darkens the albedo of lunar soil and regolith, reddens the slopes of their reflectance spectra, and attenuates the characteristic absorption bands of their reflectance spectra [1, 2, 3]. These changes are caused by vapor deposition of small (<40 nm) metallic Fe nanoparticles within the grain rims of lunar soils and agglutinates [5, 6, 8]. The initial analysis of the Itokawa dust particles revealed that 5 out of 10 particles have nanoparticle-bearing rims, whose structure varies depending on mineral species. Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles (npFe) exist in a thin (5-15 nm) surface layer (zone I) on olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase, suggestive of vapor deposition. Sulfur-free npFe exist deeper inside (<60 nm) ferromagnesian silicates (zone II). Their texture suggests formation by amorphization and in-situ reduction of Fe2+ in ferromagnesian silicates . On the other hand, nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) in the lunar samples is embedded in amorphous silicate [5, 6, 8]. These textural differences indicate that the major formation mechanisms of the npFe0 are different between the Itokawa and the lunar samples. Here we report a summary of the initial analysis of space weathering of the Itokawa dust particles.